1822-Denmark Vesey Rebellion. Executions
This was one the largest days of executions in Charleston history – twenty-two more conspirators hanged just north of “The Lines.” The entire city turned out for the Friday morning spectacle. There was such a large crowd and so much excitement that a small black boy was trampled to death.
The bodies of the convicted were given to the Medical College of South Carolina for dissection. The executed were:
- Smart Anderson: Smart was a drayman who stole two muskets, hiding them on his cart to be used when the occasion arose. He claimed he was in the rebellion “as much as possible.”
- Charles Billings: Worked in a commercial stables and planned to steal horses on the night of the rebellion. Claimed that he was “ready and willing” to do what needed to be done.
- Jemmy Clement: Member of the A. M. E. Church
- Jerry Cohen: One of the last arrested but claimed that if everyone involved was killed, he was “still willing to go on.”
- Polydore Faber: Good friend of Gullah Jack. Faber was convicted of hiding at least twenty pike poles which were to be fitted with blades and used as weapons on the night of rebellion.
- Julius Forrest: Claimed to have been “charmed” by Gullah Jack into joining the rebellion.
- Lot Forrester: One of the most active of Denmark’s recruits. Worked at the State Arsenal and was able to steal a slow fuse to be used in setting fires throughout the city.
- Jack Glenn: Although he was lame in both feet, he told Vesey he would serve as a horseman on the night of rebellion. He collected money about town to finance the plot.
- Bacchus Hammett: Stole a keg of black powder, a sword and pistol for the rebellion. ON his way to gallows he shocked the white crowd by laughing and shouting good-byes to his acquaintance. Upon his execution, the mechanism failed, and he did not drop. According to a witness, Bacchus “threw himself forward, and as he swung back he lifted his feet, so that his knees might not touch the Board.” He was shot with a pistol by Captain Dove because he was taking so long to die dangling from the gallows.
- Mingo Harth: He was a skilled laborer and worked at a lumberyard. Mingo hosted Bible study classes in his quarters in order to discuss the rebellion.
- Joe Jore: Considered an invalid, Joe pledged to take a sword and fight on the night of rebellion.
- Dean Mitchell: Assisted in collecting money to make spears and pikes.
- Jack Purcell: One of Denmark’s first recruits. However, on the gallows he stated that “if it had not been for the cunning of that old villain, Vesey, I should not now be in my present situation.”
- Adam Robertson: Participated in the ceremony where a chicken was eaten bloody by all present as a sign of their commitment to the rebellion.
- John Robertson: Also participated in the chicken ceremony.
- Robert Robertson: Helped conceal pikes and spears. Also, stole a pistol from his master.
- Tom Russell: A blacksmith who forged pikeheads and spears as long as the group took up a collection to pay for the materials. Russell was also trained by Gullah Jack to be a sorcerer.
- Dick Simms: Property of the family William Gilmore Simms, famous novelist of the time. Dick stole a pistol from his master for use during the rebellion.
- Pharo Thompson: Pharo possessed a sword fashioned out of a scythe.
- Adam Yates: Adam had the responsibility of leading the rural blacks into the city on the night of rebellion.
- Bellisle Yates: Responsible for hiding some of the plantation blacks in the city during the night of rebellion.
- Naphur Yates: Yates took an oath and swore that his “heart was in this business.” He claimed that his name had ordained him to be part of the rebellion since the word naphur is defined in the Bible as “purification fire”.
Charleston City Council urged restraint from anymore executions, due to the expense. Constable Belknap complained the city had spent $2284 “confining the accused in the Workhouse, erecting a Gallows and obtaining carts to carry the criminals to the place of execution.”
James Louis Petigru, also advised restraint stating,
“I am afraid you will hang half the country. You must take care and save negroes enough for the Rice crop.”
John C. Calhoun wrote a letter to the Pendleton Messenger openly avowing his nullification philosophy.
1864-Bombardment of Charleston
Gen. Samuel Jones received a telegram from General Winder at Andersonville Prison in Georgia that 600 Union officers and soldiers were being sent to Charleston and that it would “continue … to all are sent.”